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obras clásicas de la literatura en español: «La Celestina» y «El Lazarillo»

Estas  ediciones forman parte de la colección Clásicos de la Lengua Española, que reúne títulos fundamentales de esta lengua, del siglo XIII hasta de la primera mitad del siglo XX, en ediciones críticas que proponen diferentes capas de lectura: desde la lectura por placer, hasta la lectura científica, dirigida a especialistas que buscan información específica en cada título.

Entrevistado por la Coordinación Nacional de Literatura del Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, Alejandro Higashi comentó acerca de estas publicaciones: «Una de ellas es El Lazarillo de Tormes, con edición, estudio y notas de Francisco Rico; la otra es la selección de La Celestina, la tragicomedia de Calixto y Melibea. Son los últimos volúmenes de esta colección de clásicos que intenta presentarlos en ediciones críticas, anotadas y con textos fidedignos, con el propósito de animar a su lectura con el mayor número de herramientas para que la lectura sea provechosa y, en la medida que se lean, se aprendan muchas cosas del contexto de la época que, por la distancia cronológica, siempre se puede escapar algo».

El experto en literatura española del Medievo habló también sobre la importancia de la lectura de estos libros: «Si empezamos por La Celestina, que es el orden cronológico correcto, es una obra fundamental tan importante como el Quijote de Cervantes, porque nos presenta una dimensión humana de sus personajes en un texto inusitado para el momento en el que se publica, a finales del siglo XV y principios del XVI.

«Es una obra que intenta rescatar muchos de los elementos del teatro de la época pero que se convierte en algo muy cercano a la novela, a una construcción de personajes complejos en el que destaca mucho Celestina, pero también Calixto, Melibea y muchos de los personajes secundarios que nos proponen una visión del mundo en esa época difícil y cercana a lo que será el hombre renacentista.

«Decía Cervantes que La Celestina era una obra que había que leer y que, de no ser tan humana, sería una obra divina», señaló Higashi. Sobre El Lazarillo de Tormes afirmó que «es una obra muy importante de la segunda mitad del siglo XVI, publicada en 1554 y quizá sea uno de los primeros ejercicios de novela, de narrativa y que incursiona en la descripción de los bajos fondos de la España del periodo frente a los libros de caballería en donde lo que importaba era un guerrero que combatía para defender a las damas y al honor. Lázaro de Tormes es un mozo de ciegos, que era un oficio reconocido, pero de muy precaria condición».

Alejandro Higashi aseguró que estas «son ediciones críticas que están construidas por una graduación, de manera que al empezar el libro lo primer que tiene no es un estudio lleno de bibliografía; lo que tiene es la obra e inmediatamente un conjunto de notas que auxiliarán a la lectura. Son notas que lo que buscan es aclarar la lectura, no hay observaciones críticas que no sean pertinentes».

Y concluyó: «Estas ediciones son una invitación para volverlas a leer con herramientas como la edición crítica. Estas notas a pie de página que llamamos ‘notas urgentes’ se apoyan en un aparato de notas complementarias en las que se da mucha información a lectores especializados y a quienes no lo son, pero quieren serlo. Son ediciones que intentan preparar lectores».

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