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«PRONTUARIO DE DISPUTAS.». Por: Juan José Rodríguez Prats (Opinión)

«En determinadas circunstancias puede pasar cualquier cosa en cualquier lugar»
Margaret Atwood

 

Juan José Rodríguez Prats / Colaboración

 

Transcribo dos párrafos del libro de Diego Valadés, El control del poder, al que ya me he referido y que conviene leer y releer:

“Sistema constitucional democrático donde el poder debe a) estar distribuido, b) ser regulado, c) estar limitado, d) ser accesible, e) ser predecible, f) ser eficaz y g) estar controlado.”

Ello nos lleva a que:

“El ejercicio del poder sea verificable, responsable, razonable, evaluable, renovable, revisable y equilibrable”.

Estas son, en síntesis, las ideas que sustentan la teoría de la división de poderes. Dadas estas características, es natural la permanente confrontación de los órganos del poder, tanto en los regímenes presidenciales como parlamentarios. No ha sido una historia tersa, por el contrario, ha sido una lucha intensa. Recordemos algunos eventos.

Los senadores ejecutan a Julio César por considerarlo un peligro para la República Romana (44 a.C.)
Carlos I es decapitado por negarse a compartir el poder con el Parlamento inglés (1649).
Luis XVI es guillotinado ante el avance de la Asamblea francesa y por representar la monarquía decadente (1793).

También ha habido casos en los cuales el triunfo ha sido para los autócratas:

La Duma fracasa ante Lenin (1917).
Mussolini somete al Parlamento italiano (1923).
Hitler provoca el derrumbe de la República de Weimar (1933).

El Poder Legislativo mexicano ha sido, con escasos destellos, un convidado de piedra. Destacan la moción de censura que Benito Juárez superó por escasos votos (1861) y el no reconocimiento de la deuda inglesa (1882) en el gobierno de Manuel González. De 1997 a la fecha, se puede hablar, por su conformación plural, de un Congreso independiente.

En contraparte, tenemos que:

Agustín de Iturbide disolvió el Congreso en 1922.
Antonio López de Santa Anna también lo disolvió y provocó la Revolución de Ayutla (1853).
Dictadura y disolución del Congreso por Victoriano Huerta (1913).

El mundo vive hoy una enconada lucha por la definición de políticas y para sancionar los abusos del poder. Es estimulante el debate entre el presidente de España y el líder del Partido Popular de ese país. Teresa May se enfrenta inclusive a sus correligionarios para sacar adelante el acuerdo del Brexit. Nancy Pelossi confronta a Donald Trump ante sus desmanes.

En América Latina son estimulantes los casos de juicio político y de un papel más relevante del Poder Legislativo. Venezuela es referencia obligada. Juan Guaidó se sustenta en una Asamblea Nacional electa democráticamente en 2015 para enfrentar al aparato del Estado. Nicolás Maduro crea una artificial y anticonstitucional Asamblea y se reelige en unos comicios fraudulentos en 2018.

De lo anterior se infiere cómo la función más importante del Poder Legislativo es la de control, contrapeso, contenedor del Poder Ejecutivo. Me atrevería a decir que si antes el ejército era un protagonista de primer orden, ahora lo son las asambleas parlamentarias. Enhorabuena.

En México son evidentes las señales de que la confrontación entre los tres poderes se irá acentuando. El presidente López Obrador no suele negociar, lo suyo es más bien pelear, lo cual no está mal si se alcanzan acuerdos, pero tampoco acostumbra ceder. Soplan vientos amenazantes en lo internacional y en lo local. El debate en las cámaras es pobre. Los congresos locales están cooptados por los gobernadores. La embestida contra los órganos autónomos, de probada utilidad, ha sido avasalladora. Los partidos políticos confrontan serias crisis internas. Morena cada vez es más aparato de gobierno que partido político. Nuevamente el problema es de cultura política. Ojalá hagamos uso de ella.

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