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«LA MIGRACIÓN.». Por: Juan José Rodríguez Prats (Opinion)

«El derecho es el conjunto de condiciones que permiten la libertad de cada uno acomodarse a la libertad de todos.»:
Kant

 

 

Juan José Rodríguez Prats / Colaboración

Revista GM5

Gracias a mi amigo Raudel Ávila, leí una historia acuciosa y bien documentada, donde Margaret Macmillan relata antecedentes y causas de la Gran Guerra de 1914. Encontré cierto paralelismo con la situación actual. A pregunta de si disfrutaba de la música clásica como solía hacerlo, Theobald von Bethmann respondió con otra pregunta: “¿Cómo puedo tocar mi vieja y amada música con el aire lleno de disonancias modernas?”. Quien fuera canciller de Alemania (1909-17) concluyó: “Tanto en la música moderna como en la actual atmósfera política, predominan las disonancias”.

De ninguna manera quiero ser agorero de desastres mayúsculos, pero, a nivel nacional y global, tenemos una larga lista de disonancias, incongruencias y aberraciones. Un problema es sumamente grave: la migración.

Él artículo primero constitucional dice que en nuestro país está prohibida la esclavitud y que quienes entren “…al territorio nacional alcanzarán, por ese solo hecho, su libertad y la protección de las leyes”.

El antecedente más remoto corresponde a un decreto de Maximiliano, de septiembre de 1865, para conceder facilidades a los inmigrantes extranjeros: “Con arreglo a las leyes del Imperio, todos los hombres son libres por el solo hecho de pisar territorio mexicano”.

El texto actual, con pequeñas variantes, corresponde al texto presentado por Venustiano Carranza en diciembre de 1916. Podrá no gustarnos su redacción e inclusive criticarlo por concederle efectos mágicos a las leyes, nos encanta masturbarnos con ellas, lo he dicho, perdón por lo grotesco. El artículo no permite interpretación: libertad en el momento de pisar suelo mexicano. Los efectos deben ser generales y sin cortapisa alguna; por tanto, los acuerdos del actual gobierno en la materia son contrarios a la Constitución. Infortunadamente, sin consultar las disposiciones jurídicas, sin analizar si se tienen las facultades, se toman decisiones.

Percibo una actitud errática y ambigua en el gobierno mexicano. El presidente afirma defender la soberanía, pero se hacen concesiones inaceptables. Como sucedió con anteriores administraciones, se debió efectuar un encuentro de mandatarios para intentar amortiguar, cuando menos, la actitud iracunda de Donald Trump hacia México.

Efectivamente, Felipe Calderón creó el Fondo Yucatán para obras de infraestructura en Centroamérica, con el antecedente del Plan Puebla-Panamá. Pero otorgarle recursos públicos a un gobierno extranjero sin condición alguna, supervisión o rendición de cuentas, rebasa con mucho las normas elementales para el ejercicio del presupuesto. Equivale prácticamente a un obsequio, no recuerdo un antecedente similar.

El fenómeno migratorio marcará todo este siglo por su complejidad. Con ingredientes de toda índole, requerirá de una solución global, asumida por la ONU. En este sentido, las palabras de Benedicto XVI en una asamblea de esa organización (2008) son orientadoras:

“La promoción de los derechos humanos sigue siendo la estrategia más efectiva para prevenir las desigualdades entre los hombres y entre los pueblos y para incrementar la seguridad, pues las víctimas de las penurias y las desesperanzas, cuya dignidad se viola con impunidad, son una presa fácil del llamado a la violencia y pueden convertirse en violadores de la paz”.

En las relaciones con Estados Unidos, Daniel Cosío Villegas (siempre actual) recomendaba: “México no puede –y quizá no deba– apartarse del camino central que siga Estados Unidos; pero a una cosa no debe renunciar y la otra la debe obtener y hacer respetar: la primera es pensar y apreciar por sí mismo los problemas y las situaciones; la segunda, un compromiso formal de Estados Unidos de no tomar ninguna decisión internacional importante sin oír y atender la opinión de México”.

Le debimos haber hecho caso.

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