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Retinopatía diabética, catarata y glaucoma, responsables de discapacidad visual y ceguera en mexicanos

Se estima que en México hay 2 millones 237 mil personas con deficiencia visual y más de 415 mil 800 con ceguera. Uno de cada tres pacientes con diabetes tiene retinopatía diabética, que puede degenerar en edema macular diabético y conducirlos a ceguera. El envejecimiento de la población y la retinopatía diabética aumentarán el deterioro de la visión en las próximas décadas.

 

 

 

 

Redacción / Revista GM5

editor@gm5.com.mx

Ciudad de México, 10 de octubre de 2019.- México se ubica entre los 20 países con mayor número de personas afectadas por la discapacidad visual y ceguera[i], siendo la catarata, la retinopatía diabética, el edema macular diabético, el glaucoma y la retinopatía del prematuro, las principales complicaciones responsables del deterioro visual en la población.

En el marco del Día Mundial de la Visión, que se conmemora este 10 de octubre, y bajo el lema Vision First¡ (¡En Primer Lugar la Visión!), la Sociedad Mexicana de Oftalmología (SMO), el Centro Mexicano de Salud Visual Preventiva (CMSVP) y la Agencia Internacional para la Prevención de la Ceguera (IAPB), se unen para crear conciencia en la población de la importancia de cuidar su visión e invitar a las instituciones de salud pública a tomar las acciones y las medidas necesarias para reducir la discapacidad visual y ceguera evitable en los mexicanos.

El Dr. Eduardo Chávez Mondragón, Presidente de la Sociedad Mexicana de Oftalmología, expresó que en México se estima hay 2 millones 237 mil personas con deficiencia visual y más de 415 mil 800 con ceguera[ii], por lo que ratificó el compromiso de los profesionales de la salud por lograr la meta de Salud Visual Universal.

Si bien a nivel mundial en los último 25 años la prevalencia en el deterioro de la visión estandarizada por edad ha disminuido en todas las regiones del mundo, factores como el envejecimiento de la población y el incremento de la diabetes impactan negativamente en estos logros, e incluso se estima que para el año 2050 podría haber más de 700 millones de personas con discapacidad visual y ceguera[iii], destacó el Dr. Jesús Jiménez Román, Presidente del Centro Mexicano de Salud Visual Preventiva (CMSVP).

Uno de los factores de riesgo latente para la visión de los mexicanos es la diabetes, enfermedad no transmisible prioritaria para la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y de alta incidencia en el país, con un aproximado de 12 millones de pacientes, de los cuales uno de cada tres presenta algún grado de retinopatía diabética y uno de cada 10 desarrollará una forma de la enfermedad que amenaza la visión: el edema macular diabético, principal causa de ceguera en adultos en etapa productiva[iv], mencionó el Dr. Abel Ramírez Estudillo, fundador de la Asociación Mexicana de Retinopatía Diabética.

De acuerdo con la OMS, la retinopatía diabética es la causa del 4.8% de ceguera en el mundo, el edema macular diabético es responsable de la mayoría de perdida visual que experimentan los pacientes con diabetes, la cual se manifiesta desde visión borrosa hasta ceguera, afectando importantemente la funcionalidad y calidad de vida de quien la padece, agregó la Dra. Ángeles Yahel Hernández, especialista de la Fundación Hospital Nuestra Señora de la Luz.

La detección temprana y el tratamiento oportuno permite prevenir hasta 98% de daño visual asociado a la diabetes, por lo tanto, la retinopatía diabética como el edema macular diabético deben ser identificados desde el diagnóstico inicial de la enfermedad a fin de dar un seguimiento oftalmológico puntual y evitar el riesgo de discapacidad visual, enfatizó la especialista.

Por su parte, el Dr. Jaime Macias Martínez, del Instituto Mexicano de Oftalmología (IMO), comentó que otro de los problemas de visión que se presenta a medida que la población envejece son las cataratas, que conducen a una mala visión y si no se corrige, con el paso de los años dará lugar a ceguera. Esta situación es preocupante ya que el crecimiento esperado de mexicanos mayores de 65 años para el año 2050 es de 29 millones, lo que incrementará drásticamente la incidencia de catarata en este grupo poblacional.

Otra causa de ceguera a escala mundial es el glaucoma, enfermedad que provoca pérdida irreversible de la visión, siendo el glaucoma de ángulo abierto el más común en la población mexicana, mencionó la Dra. Lulu Ululani Gurría Quintana de la Fundación Hospital Conde de Valenciana (CONVAL).

No sólo los adultos tienen problemas de pérdida de visión; también los bebés, en especial los prematuros, pueden presentar retinopatía, principal causa de ceguera infantil evitable en México y una de las prioridades de prevención de ceguera para la OMS-OPS, cuya detección oportuna se encuentra protegida por decreto presidencial, señaló la Dra. Luz Consuelo Zepeda Romero del Hospital Civil de Guadalajara.

Con 16 mil recién nacidos prematuros en riesgo de presentar la retinopatía del prematuro cada año, si se identifica la enfermedad de manera oportuna, en más del 90% de los casos la visión se conserva, garantizando así un mejor futuro para ellos y sus familias, agregó.

En el mundo 217 millones de personas padecen alguna deficiencia visual y 36 millones tienen ceguera[v]. Debemos de frenar este panorama, dado que más del 75% de estos casos pudieron evitarse si se hubiera actuado a tiempo, por ello es fundamental sensibilizar a la población sobre la importancia que representa la detección temprana de las enfermedades oculares a través de un examen de la vista para evitar la pérdida de la visión en el futuro, aseveró la Dra. Lourdes Medina Álvarez Tostado, del Centro Mexicano de Baja Visión (CMBV).

El Dr. Francisco Martínez Castro, Representante de la IAPB para México y América Latina, declaró que para revertir este panorama y mejorar la salud ocular y calidad de vida de los pacientes con deficiencias y enfermedades visuales debe existir el firme compromiso de trabajar sociedad y gobierno en tres temas clave: destinar mayor presupuesto para la salud visual; invertir en formación, innovación e investigación para este rubro, e integrar la salud ocular en todos los niveles de atención de la salud pública.

Finalmente, los oftalmólogos coincidieron en que los esfuerzos en la atención de la salud visual en México se deben concentrar en la prevención, y en la imperativa necesidad de invertir más en educación y en tratamientos específicos, ya que las enfermedades de la visión en etapas avanzadas afectan sensiblemente la calidad de vida de la población, siendo necesario incorporar programas de rehabilitación visual cualquiera que sea el remanente de visión, incrementando así los costos de su atención para las instituciones de salud pública.

Te invitamos a unirte a las acciones de promoción a la salud del Día Mundial de la Visión incorporando los hashtags #WorldSightDay, #DiaMundialdelaVision, #WSD19 #VisionFirst

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