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Hipoacusia súbita, quedarse sordo de manera inesperada.

Este padecimiento es una enfermedad donde se experimenta la ausencia de sonido de forma repentina en menos de 72 horas
Su incidencia a nivel mundial ha sido reportada entre 5 y 20 casos por cada 100 mil habitantes.

 

 

 

 

Redacción / Revista GM5

editor@gm5.com.mx

Gracias a datos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) se sabe que en el mundo existen más de 400 millones de personas con pérdida auditiva discapacitante. En México se ubican 694 mil 451 habitantes con deficiencia auditiva, incluyendo a quienes ya utilizan un aparato y a quienes no, lo que equivale al 12.1% del total de la población con alguna discapacidad. Tanto a nivel mundial como local, existen casos que se presentaron a raíz de hipoacusias súbitas idiopáticas.

La hipoacusia súbita presenta una incidencia a nivel mundial de entre 5 y 20 casos por cada 100 mil habitantes por año, aunque recientes investigaciones describen de 160 a 300 pacientes por cada 100 mil habitantes en un año.

Este padecimiento es una enfermedad donde se experimenta la ausencia de sonido de forma repentina, usualmente sin razón alguna, de ahí el término de idiopática, ya que al realizar la evaluación clínica no se logra revelar la causa, por lo que resulta difícil de diagnosticar y de llevar a cabo un tratamiento. En términos médicos a esta pérdida se le conoce como hipoacusia neurosensorial súbita idiopática (HNSSI).

Se considera como sordera súbita, aquella hipoacusia neurosensorial o perceptiva de inicio súbito, en menos de 72 horas, con pérdida de más de 30 dBs, al menos en tres frecuencias consecutivas de la audiometría tonal, sin otros antecedentes otológicos previo. Una pérdida de este número de decibeles equivaldría a escuchar una conversación normal como si fuera un susurro, con base en la información NIDCD.

La edad media de los pacientes con HNSI es entre 40 y 54 años, es menos frecuente en la infancia y existe igual predominio de la enfermedad en ambos sexos. La mayoría de estos casos son unilaterales y el oído derecho e izquierdo tienen igual posibilidad de ser afectados. Los casos bilaterales son poco comunes y tienen mayor probabilidad de asociarse con enfermedades sistémicas graves. De acuerdo con datos del Instituto Nacional de la Sordera y Otros Trastornos de la Comunicación de Estados Unidos (NIDCD, por sus siglas en inglés), se calcula que, en este país, este tipo de sordera puede llegar a afectar entre una y seis personas de cada cinco mil.

La etiología de la sordera súbita en más del 70% de los casos es desconocida. Si bien no hay causas identificables, ya que es una enfermedad idiopática, sí existen algunas probabilidades que ya se han estudiado, como, por ejemplo: infecciones virales, que pueden presentarse en la infancia, vida adulta y embarazo, tales como paperas, sarampión, rubeola, entre otros; tumores, traumatismo craneoencefálico, medicamentos e insecticidas, etcétera

Existen diversas teorías respecto a los mecanismos involucrados con base en estudios de series de casos, que incluyen la Teoría viral, en la cual diversos estudios han asociado este tipo de patologías a una inflación del oído interno secundaria a un proceso viral, como ser infección por el virus del herpes simple tipo 1 al igual que el frecuente antecedente de infecciones de vías aéreas superiores o su mayor incidencia en determinadas épocas del año.

Teoría de la microcirculación del oído interno, la cual se apoya en que la microcirculación del oído interno es susceptible a los cambios sutiles en la misma, siendo los pacientes con riesgo cardiovascular los más afectados según esta teoría.

Teoría de la enfermedad inmunomediada, los estudios anatomopatológicos, las curaciones espontáneas y la respuesta al tratamiento con esteroides pueden apoyar esta teoría.

Ante una sospecha clínica de Sordera Súbita, y antes de plantear un posible tratamiento, la evaluación integral por un especialista en otorrinolaringología en conjunto con la del especialista en audiología, son necesarias y amerita atención de urgencia. Dentro de las pruebas diagnósticas prioritarias se pueden destacar, la evaluación otológica y audiológica completa, estudios de audiometría tonal, audiometría verbal (logoaudiometría e impedanciometría). En el momento que se presente la falta de audición es necesario acudir al especialista antes de que el problema sea grave e irreversible, puntualiza la Dra. Jimena Atuán Rodas; Especialista en Audiología, Foniatría y Otoneurología de MED-EL.

MED-EL reafirma su compromiso con la audición de los mexicanos y los exhorta a realizarse chequeos auditivos con periodicidad para preservar su calidad de vida.

RevistaGM5
Pagina libre al pensamiento
http://www.gm5.com.mx

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