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CEPAL y OIT, para reactivación productiva, priorizar políticas de seguridad y salud en el trabajo

CEPAL y OIT presentaron una nueva publicación conjunta en la que analizan los desafíos laborales tras la pandemia. Organismos señalan que la crisis provocaría 11,5 millones de nuevos desempleados en América Latina y el Caribe.

 

 

 

Redacción / Revista GM5

editor@gm5.com.mx

Priorizar las políticas de seguridad y salud en el trabajo para que la reactivación productiva y del empleo post crisis de la enfermedad del coronavirus (COVID-19) sea segura y saludable, es fundamental y requerirá una gestión participativa de la seguridad y salud laboral, con participación de empleadores y trabajadores, para el cimiento de las políticas de retorno, aseguraron hoy la CEPAL y la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT) en una nueva publicación conjunta.

La edición N⁰ 22 del informe Coyuntura Laboral en América Latina y el Caribe. El trabajo en tiempos de pandemia: desafíos frente a la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) (mayo de 2020) fue presentada de manera simultánea en Santiago de Chile y Lima, Perú, mediante una conferencia de prensa virtual conjunta encabezada por la Secretaria Ejecutiva de la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), Alicia Bárcena, y el Director Regional de la OIT para América Latina y el Caribe, Vinícius Pinheiro.

Además de entregar estimaciones sobre la dinámica del mercado de trabajo en los últimos meses, el informe conjunto CEPAL-OIT explora algunas de las políticas implementadas por los países para proteger el empleo formal, cautelar los ingresos de los trabajadores y trabajadoras en la economía formal e informal y proteger al sector productivo.

Según el documento, la implementación de las políticas para la reactivación requerirá de un fuerte componente de formación y educación en seguridad y salud para los actores del mundo del trabajo. Para ello son necesarios recursos institucionales y presupuestarios reforzados que garanticen su cumplimiento, y deben incluir buenas prácticas como la puesta en marcha de un protocolo de salud y seguridad en el trabajo que incluya inducción al personal, la adopción de horarios de entrada y salida desfasados para evitar aglomeraciones, rutinas de desinfección y sistema de lavado de manos, uso obligatorio de mascarillas, y un protocolo en caso de que algún trabajador presente síntomas.

Asimismo, agrega que de prolongarse la crisis por más tiempo, será necesario una nueva ronda de medidas, orientadas tanto a proteger empleo e ingresos de trabajadores y limitar impacto en las empresas, con un foco especial en grupos vulnerables como los migrantes en situación no regularizada, trabajadoras domésticas y cuidadores de personas mayores, trabajadores asalariados e independientes informales en sectores críticos y trabajadores de la salud en primera línea de respuesta frente al COVID-19.

Mirando hacia el futuro, ambos funcionarios de las Naciones Unidas señalan que la crisis está empezando a forjar numerosos cambios en el mundo laboral que serán permanentes con el fin de ir hacia una “normalidad mejor”. “Las políticas para la recuperación deben apuntar no solo a una ‘nueva normalidad’ similar a la anterior, sino a una ‘normalidad mejor’ con mayor formalidad, equidad y diálogo social”, indicaron Bárcena y Pinheiro.

En materia de coyuntura, CEPAL y OIT indican que la pandemia ha generado fuertes efectos negativos en el mercado de trabajo, con consecuencias en el sector formal (reducción de horas, caída de salarios y despidos) e informal (caída de empleo por distanciamiento y prohibición de circulación, menor acceso a compensaciones de ingreso). Asimismo, advierten que las mujeres trabajadoras son las más vulnerables y sectores intensivos en mano de obra como el turismo, comercio, manufactura, inmobiliaria y entretenimiento han sido altamente afectados. Además, las Micro y Pequeñas Empresas concentran 46,6% del total del empleo en la región y tienen alto riesgo de experimentar quiebras.

Antes de la pandemia América Latina y el Caribe mostraba bajo crecimiento y en el 2020 se espera la peor contracción económica desde 1930, con una caída en el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) regional estimada de -5,3%, lo que tendrá efectos negativos sobre el mercado de trabajo. Se proyecta un aumento de la tasa de desocupación de al menos 3,4 puntos porcentuales, hasta alcanzar un 11,5%, lo que equivale a más de 11,5 millones de nuevos desempleados. De profundizarse la contracción económica la tasa de desocupación será mayor.

Junto al aumento de la desocupación, se espera un marcado deterioro de la calidad del empleo, indica el informe. El trabajo informal es la fuente de ingresos de muchos hogares de América Latina y el Caribe, donde la tasa media de informalidad es de aproximadamente un 54%, según estimaciones de la OIT, situación que afecta a los grupos más vulnerables.

En tanto, según cálculos de la OIT la crisis sanitaria provocada por el COVID-19 y las medidas de confinamiento provocan una pérdida de alrededor del 10,3% de las horas de trabajo en el segundo trimestre de este año, lo que equivale a 31 millones de empleos a tiempo completo (suponiendo una jornada de 40 horas semanales).

Esta situación afectará negativamente la dinámica de la pobreza y la desigualdad y el logro de los compromisos de la Agenda 2030, agregan los organismos de la ONU. La CEPAL estima que para el 2020 la tasa de pobreza aumentaría hasta 4,4 puntos porcentuales y la pobreza extrema 2,6 puntos porcentuales con respecto a 2019. Esto implica que la pobreza alcanzaría entonces a 34,7% de la población latinoamericana (214,7 millones de personas) y la pobreza extrema a 13% (83,4 millones de personas). También se espera un aumento de la desigualdad en todos los países de la región, con incrementos del índice de Gini de entre el 0,5% y el 6,0%.

Más allá de la pobreza, grandes grupos de población viven en condiciones crónicas de inseguridad económica y son vulnerables a la pérdida de ingresos laborales. De allí que la CEPAL ha propuesto un ingreso básico de emergencia (IBE) por un monto igual a una línea de pobreza durante seis meses para satisfacer necesidades básicas y sostener el consumo de los hogares. Esto supondría un gasto adicional del 2,1% del PIB para abarcar a todas las personas que se encontrarán en situación de pobreza en 2020.

En este ámbito, el objetivo estratégico de largo plazo es la implementación gradual de un ingreso básico universal, sustentado por mecanismos sostenibles e innovadores de financiamiento, añade la Comisión.

El informe reitera que es necesario repensar el modelo de desarrollo y consolidar las dimensiones económicas, sociales y ambientales del desarrollo sostenible, sin dejar a nadie atrás, como lo señala la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible. Asimismo, en paralelo a las políticas laborales se requiere un sistema de protección social basado en un enfoque de derechos, sensible a las diferencias, con políticas universales, redistributivas y solidarias.

Documento Completo, LINK

https://www.cepal.org/es/publicaciones/45557-coyuntura-laboral-america-latina-caribe-trabajo-tiempos-pandemia-desafios-frente

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